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Smoking A 20th Century Hangover

April 17, 2014


The 20th century has give our generation a hangover with the smoking bug. Although we have developed new technology such as electronic cigarettes, which are supplied by manufacturers such as Smokshop in the UK, smoking is still a bug bear and a killer.

It is widely known that smoking is bad for your health. Yet, millions of people in this world still continue to smoke. Perhaps it is because they do not know specifically what kinds of dangers smoking can pose. In the United States, smoking causes one in five deaths because it contributes to so many health problems. This article will summarise some of the more harmful effects of smoking.

The most commonly known health problem stemming from smoking is lung cancer. Among men who have lung cancer, ninety percent of these cases are caused by smoking. Among women, eighty percent of lung cancer cases are caused by cigarettes.

Cigarettes contain many carcinogens. It is inhaling these harmful chemicals into the body that is causing so many deaths. One chemical called acrolein destroys the lining in your lungs and prevents DNA repair. Arsenic is a known poison, but it is found in cigarettes. Benzene contributes to leukemia. Cigarettes contain all types of chemicals that are used in making batteries, alloy metals, dyes and paints. It contains formaldehyde, commonly used in taxidermy. It contains tar, which leaves the ugly, sticky, brown residue in your lungs, on your fingernails and on your teeth.

Smoking makes it harder for you to breathe. Every time you inhale a cigarette, you inhale chemicals that can damage and scar your lungs. It can cause chronic obstructive pulmonary disease that can worsen. This causes shortness of breath, wheezing and other respiratory problems. Emphysema can also develop which impacts your lungs’ ability to stretch and shrink when you breath. This damage to your lung tissues significantly affects your ability to breathe easily and freely. Smoking causes chronic bronchitis. Your bronchial tubes become swollen, decreasing the air flow to and from your lungs. Other lung diseases that can develop include tuberculosis, pneumonia and asthma.

Smoking robs your body of oxygen because you are inhaling carbon monoxide. When your blood cells get less oxygen and more carbon monoxide, a deposit is formed in the lining of your arteries. Over a period of time, this deposit becomes thicker and your arteries become hardened. Heart disease develops that can result in a heart attack.

The nicotine from smoking is addictive. It raises your blood pressure and your heart rate, while causing your arteries to narrow. When combined with the effects of carbon monoxide in the body, that sets the stage for a heart attack. The addiction to nicotine causes a person to smoke even more frequently, thus raising the risk of a heart attack even more.

Smoking can cause you to lose bone density. This condition is called osteoporosis. When bones lose mass, they become weaker. Weakened bones fracture more easily. For older women who smoke, this is a big problem because their bones are already at risk of losing bone mass. This is caused by the reduction in estrogen production in their body due to menopause. Smoking reduces estrogen even more, thus precipitating the development of osteoporosis.

Smoking can lead to the rapid deterioration of your eyesight. Studies have shown that people who smoke have a higher tendency in developing macular degeneration, damage to the optic nerves, and cataracts. These conditions can ultimately cause blindness.

Second-hand smoke is harmful to non-smokers, particularly to children. Tobacco smoke in the environment causes thousands of deaths stemming from lung cancer and heart disease. People who are exposed to second-hand smoke have as high as a thirty percent increase in their risk of developing heart disease. Children are especially vulnerable because their immune systems are immature and offers less protection.

With so many dangers of smoking, smokers need to strongly consider what their smoking habit is doing to themselves, to their loved ones, and to the environment. If more effort can be made in quitting, the world and the people living it would be much healthier.

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Information on Prohormones

April 5, 2014


The best way to describe prohormones would be anything that experiences a type of hormonal action, which will convert into another form which is active. In fact all hormones are considered to be prohormones of something else as the number of inter-conversions that occur between the hormonal agents is virtually endless.

However, when a type of steroid is regarded as weak when it stands on its own or will have no known activity it will be known as a prohormone. When a type of androgen is regarded to be active when it stands on its own it will be known as anabolic steroids. This activity is what will separate the anabolic steroids from the prohormones.

Prosteroids are known as active androgens which will be able to operate alone, without the need for conversion. An example of prosteroids would be testosterone 1 and testosterone is regarded as active androgens, while andro 1 and androstenedione would be known as their prohormones. Prosteroids are actually active steroids and are typically illegal as a result of chemical modifications. These types of steroids such as Superdrol and M-Drol are types of active androgens that will not require a conversion.

There are synthetic steroids such as H-Drol which will require enzyme activation which are chemically modified. Prohormone Enzymes which is a conversion of prohormones to what is known as active steroids will require enzymes that are present in the human body. This type of limitation is what will allow the prohormone to acquire a RLM (Rate Limiting Mechanism), which will increase what is known as the “Safety Profile”.

There are two types of enzymes which will convert prohormones to active steroids which will include 17b hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 3b hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. These enzymes will act on the position of either 17 carbon or 3 carbon in order to cause the steroid to reach an active state.

Derivatives that will change the positions of double bonds will additionally change the activities of the prohormones and what type of enzymes will be able to act on them. Testosterone is known as a 4-ene, which means it contains double bonds in four positions. Derivatives like testosterone 1 will stop certain enzymes. If testosterone 1 had to be replaced with testosterone in the human body, there would be no estrogen.

Everybody requires all types of steroid hormones in order to live and these will include dehydro-testosterone, progesterone, estrogen and Cortisol regardless of being either a male or female. In the cases when these steroid hormones become imbalanced, individuals will not be able to perform at optimum levels.

Environmental toxins such as Parabens and BPA can reduce the abilities that the body has to produce testosterone. This effect can cause an action similar to estrogen within the body which can relate to males feeling the negative effects of what is known as low testosterone levels. In addition, other types of environmental estrogens such as pesticides are known to alter the ratio known as Estrogen to the Androgen, changing estrogenic onto androgenic agents within the human body.

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